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An Analysis of Zhejiang’s Economic Development in 2013
2015-05-04 10:20:41

  In the year of 2012, despite the influence of the global economic depression and ever-increasing pressure from the declining domestic economy, Zhejiangs tourism maintained its growth momentum by adhering to the theme, deepening the reform and pursuing innovation. With its realistic and pragmatic approach, the provincial tourism rebounded from the initial gloom in the first quarter, grew steadily in the second, and achieved buoyant growth in the third and fourth quarters. In particular, as the tourism investment expanded rapidly, consumption increased steadily and innovations arose in the tourist industry constantly, tourism industry further played its role in leading the convergence oftherelevant industries, ensuring economic stability, adjusting economic structure, promoting economic transformation, encouraging social progress and employment, and serving as a pioneering industry for industrial restructuring, an engine to fuel consumption, a major support for economic growth and an important force to maintain social harmony. In 2012, Zhejiangs tourism took a lead in China with major economic indicators like the economic aggregate of 480.12 billion yuan and actual investment of 58.1 billion yuan.

I. Environment for Tourism Economy

(i) Global economic environment remained complicated and challenging.

  In 2012, the global economic recovery slowed down, indicating an increasing downward risk. Developed countries saw the all-time high unemployment rate and weak consumer demands; the economic growth in emerging markets and developing countries declined, making the situation for macro-control policies even more complicated. European sovereign debt crisis worsened continually; the U.S. long-term sovereign credit rating was lowered; the international financial market fluctuated greatly and repeatedly; commodity prices stood high and volatile; the global inflation pressure remained high.

  The whole country received 132 million inbound tourists with a year-on-year growth of -2.23%, and foreign exchange income totaled 50.028 billion dollars with a year-on-year growth of 3.23%. The continued downturn of the global economy suppressed the demand for international tourism, putting great pressure on the development of China's inbound tourism market. Meanwhile, the U.S., Russia, South Korea and some European countries introduced a number of preferential policies and measures to attract international tourists and stimulate local economy. As a result, Chinas outbound tourism continued to be hot while the competition in the inbound tourism market turned horrifyingly fierce.

 (ii) Chinas macro-economy made steady progress.

  In 2012, China's economy displayed three features, namely, slower growth, lower inflation, and better structure. GDP grew within the target range, and the national economy stabilized, providing favorable conditions for the continued growth of the tourism industry. Statistics show that China's GDP growth rate rebounded notably after gradually declining for seven consecutive quarters by the third quarter of 2012, with an increase of 7.9% in the fourth quarter and an annual growth of 7.8%. New progress was made in economic restructuring. The share of service industry in GDP increased by 1.2% to 44.6% and the ultimate consumption contributed 51.8% to GDP. The general price level was stable. The consumer price was 2.6% higher than that of 2011 with a drop of 2.8% in its growth. Employment was generally stable with 2.84 million newly employed, of whom 11.88 million were employed in urban areas.   

 (iii) Environment for industry development continued to turn for the better.

  China has become the world's third largest host country for inbound tourism and consumer country for outbound tourism. (According to the latest statistics released by the World Tourism Organization, in 2012 China became the world's largest consumer of outbound tourism. The year round outbound tourism consumption amounted to 102 billion dollars.) In 2012, with a size of nearly 3 billion, China became the biggest domestic tourism market in the world. Tourism is making an increasing contribution to the national economy. It is embracing a new era of golden development and strategic opportunity. The 18th CPC National Congress put forward the concept of constructing a beautiful China, which provided new opportunities for the development of tourism and highlighted its status as a pillar industry in the strategic development of the national economy. The policy environment for industry has been continually optimized.

  In 2012, the country introduced a series of policies to encourage tourist spending and promote the development of tourist businesses. The China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC), National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), Ministry of Commerce of the Peoples Republic of China (MOFCOM), State Administration for Industry and Commerce (SAIC), Peoples Bank of China (PBC) and Ministry of Finance (MOF) jointly issued Some Opinions on Financial Support to Accelerate the Development of Tourism. The National Development and Reform Commission released The Notice of Further Implementing the Policy of Free or Discounted Tickets for Kids and Teenagers. The Tourism Law of the People's Republic of China(draft) had been examined by the Standing Committee of the National Peoples Congress, which further enhanced the protection of consumer rights and interests of tourists and created a more favorable context for stimulating tourism demands. At the end of the year, the General Office of the Peoples Government of Zhejiang Province introduced Some Opinions about Accelerating and Promoting Comprehensive Pilot Reform of Tourism, which not only quickened the pace of pilot reform, but promoted the upgrading of tourism and the construction of a powerful tourism province.

  In 2012, Zhejiangs tourism received a lot of attention from Party committees and governments at all levels. The year also saw a continued increase in financial support for tourism industry. According to statistics, government finances at all levels in Zhejiang invested a special fund of 1.54 billion yuan for tourism development. Of all counties, cities or districts in Zhejiang, 16 had a tourism development fund of over 30 million, and 11 cities (excluding Yiwu), made an investment of 0.55 billion yuan for tourism development, an increase of 1.7% over the year of 2011, of which 0.19 billion yuan was dedicated to tourism promotion.

  Meanwhile, leaders at all levels, including Zhao Hongzhu, former secretary of CPC Zhejiang Provincial Committee, Xia Baolong, present secretary of CPC Zhejiang Provincial Committee, and Governor Li Qiang, showed great concern and support for tourism. Xia Baolong emphasized the importance of tourism on many occasions, like the CPC Provincial Congress, the Economic Working Conference, meetings with central enterprises, the Conference on Situation Analysis of Quarterly Economic Development, and even at the Conference of Improving Environment, Promoting Development. He attended the tourism promotion campaign in Japan and Australia, and chaired the Provincial Conference on Promoting the Construction of Major Tourism Projects. He pointed out that tourism was a highly comprehensive and connected industry that helped develop other industries and had an extensive influence. He said that developing tourism was the key to improving social development, economy and peoples living standard. He made four trips to places like Chunan, Tongxiang, and Shaoxing to attend the commence ceremonies for major tourism projects. Wang Jianman, then vice governor, was a contact person, supervisor and promoter of six major tourism projects, including Anji Hello Kitty Park, who helped solve many practical problems like land, transportation, and fire control. Huang Xuming, then vice-chairman of Zhejiang Provincial CPPCC, took charge of the research project of Developing Zhejiangs Tourism into a Strategic Pillar Industry of National Economy. To achieve the objective, he proposed the guideline of holding on to One Strategy, Three Focuses in developing Zhejiangs tourism.

  Driven by a new series of policies intended to stimulate consumption, retail industry, transportation, catering, art and culture industry, sports and entertainment, residential services and other major industries related closely to tourism all ran steadily, providing favorable conditions for tourism development. From January to December, 2012, the retail sales of social consumer goods totaled 20.7167 trillion yuan, with a year-on-year nominal increase of 14.3% (a real increase of 12.1% if allowing for the price fluctuations), of which the revenue of catering increased by 13.6% to 2.3283 trillion, that of retail industry increased by 14.4% to 18,3884 trillion, and the passenger throughput totaled 37.899 billion, with a year-on-year growth of 7.6%.  

 (iv) Household consumption level rose steadily.

  Statistics showed that the national per capita disposable income of urban households reached 24,565 yuan, with an actual growth of 9.6% compared with the last year. The per capita net income of rural households reached 7,917 yuan, with an actual growth of 10.7% compared with the last year. For the first time, six provinces or cities, including Beijing, Tianjing, Shanghai, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Inner Mongolia, entered into a developed state with per capital GDP of over 10,000 dollars. Zhejiangs per capita GDP stood as 63,266 yuan, exceeding 10,000 dollars for the first time. Zhejiangs per capita disposable income of urban households reached 34,550 yuan, with an actual growth of 9.2%, and Zhejiangs per capita net income of rural households reached 14,552 yuan, with an actual growth of 8.8%, putting Zhejiang at the top of all provinces and cities for 28 consecutive years. Household consumption level as indicated by per capita GDP rose steadily, adding an incentive to rapid growth of Zhejiangs tourism consumption and constant upgrading of consumption level.

  With the increase of household consumption level, inflation was effectively controlled. In the year of 2012, after going down in the first six months and reaching the lowest level in July, Chinas consumer confidence index rebounded in September and back to 100.8, the level at the beginning of the year.

  From October through December, consumer confidence index went up to 106.1, 105.1, 103.7 respectively, with each months consumer expectation index 3.2%, 4.3% and 3.9% higher than the satisfaction index. It indicated that Chinese consumers had positive expectations of the future economic development, which provided a good environment for sustained growth of tourism economy.

II. Achievements of Tourism Economy

  In 2012, despite the unfavorable international situation, Zhejiangs tourism economy went up against the trend, with the domestic tourism rising quickly, the inbound tourism growing steadily, and the outbound tourism making a sustained and strong growth. The tourism industry as a whole maintained its growth at a steady and relatively fast pace. The overall strength of tourism industry was enhanced, the industrial structure optimized, the foundation reinforced, the development scope expanded, the policy environment improved, the comprehensive contribution increased, and remarkable achievements made.

 (i) Contribution to national economy increased.

  According to statistics, in 2012 Zhejiang achieved a total tourism income of 480.12 billion yuan, with a year-on-year increase of 15.6%, by the estimate of the Provincial Bureau of Statistics, which was 7.08% higher than the provincial increase of GDP. The growth in tourism accounted for 6.1% of the provincial GDP, with a year-on-year increase of 0.37%; it accounted for 13.7% of the growth in service industry, with a year-on-year increase of 0.65%. Compared with other provinces and cities, Zhejiang made steady strides in the general tourism development across China, with its tourism revenue ranking 3rd among the 31 in two consecutive years of 2011 and 2012. Statistics show that in the 2012 rankings, Zhejiang was the third with a tourism revenue of 480.12 billion yuan, 257.9 billion less than that of Guangdong Province and 169.9 billion less than that of Jiangsu Province, the first and second in the rankings respectively. The tourism revenue of Zhejiang was 3.01 billion and 117.46 billion yuan more than that of Shandong Province and Beijing, the fourth and the fifth in the rankings respectively.

 (ii) Tourism consumption market continued to grow against the trend.

  According to estimates based on sample surveys, in 2012 Zhejiang received altogether 391.24 million visits of domestic tourists, a year-on-year increase of 14.1% and achieved a revenue of 447.58 billion yuan from domestic tourism, a year-on-year increase of 18.2%. Zhejiang also received 8.659 million visits of overseas tourists, a year-on-year increase of 11.9%, and achieved a revenue of 5.15 billion US dollars, a year-on-year increase of 13.4%. Travel agencies in Zhejiang arranged 1.606 million outbound visits, a year-on-year increase of 26.7%. In total, the three tourism markets received 0.4 billion visits and achieved a revenue of 480.12 billion yuan. Given the background of troubled macro economy, the market performance of tourism industry was good. Domestic tourism developed steadily and rapidly, outbound tourism boomed, and the inbound tourism managed to maintain its two-digit growth, which was not easy considering the gloomy economic environment.  Specifically, there was an increase of 78.9% in domestic tours arranged by travel agencies, and 26.7% in outbound tours. Across Zhejiang, scenic areas and attractions subject to statistics received altogether 0.43 billion visits, a year-on-year increase of 24.7%, with a revenue of 6.05 billion yuan from  ticket sales, a year-on-year increase of 18.9%.According to the results of sample surveys in 2012, the average expenditure of every domestic tourist in Zhejiang was 1,144 yuan, a year-on-year increase of 10.9%, and that of every inbound tourist was 218.6 dollars per day, 5.9 dollars more than that of 2011 and ranking 4th in China with 23.3 dollars higher than the national average.

 (iii) Capacity of tourism product provision was further enhanced.

  By the end of 2012, Zhejiang had 143 scenic areas of 4A grade and above, 16 more than the previous year, of which 10 were of 5A grade, with one newly-added, and 133 were of A4 grade, with 15 newly added, thus putting Zhejiang on the second place in China in terms of the number of high-grade scenic areas. Zhejiang had 958 star-rated hotels, including 66 five-star and 187 four-star hotels. Though the total number of star-rated hotels was 33 less than that of 2011, there were 17 new star-rated hotels and 42 state-level green hotels, ranking among the top ones in the country statistically. There were 25 scenic areas above provincial level. In addition, Zhejiang developed some new tourism products, including 55 provincial-level scenic areas or spots of intangible cultural heritage, 40 demonstration sites or bases of industrial tourism above provincial level, 35 tourist programs of seasonal fruit picking. Furthermore, there were 2012 travel agencies, an addition of 152 over the previous year, of which 14 had the qualification of arranging tours to Taiwan, an addition of 5 over the previous year. In terms of the total number of travel agencies and of those qualified for arranging outbound tours and tours to Taiwan, Zhejiang stayed among the top ones in China.

 (iv) Investment in tourism programs achieved sustained and fast growth.

  By the end of 2012, according to statistics available, there were 914 tourism projects under construction, with a total contractual investment of 56.641 billion yuan, of which 135 received investment of more than 1 billion, accounting for 14.8% of all the projects, and 7 received investment of more than 10 billion. The planned investment for 2012 was 55.739 billion, and the actual completed investment was 58.144 billion, with the rate of disbursement as high as 104.3%. In particular, the actual completed investment for projects of over 1 billion yuan was 28.326 billion yuan, accounting for 48.7% of the total. Characterized by high rate, large scale, new types, and flexible mechanisms, investment in large tourism projects had become a major driving force for promoting the upgrading and competitiveness of Zhejiangs tourism economy.

 (v.) Great achievement was made in industry convergence.

  By means of industry convergence, Zhejiang launched over 100 new tourism products in 2012, including three national demonstration counties of leisure agriculture and rural tourism, four national demonstration sites of leisure agriculture and rural tourism, 35 seasonal fruit-picking routes, 16 provincial demonstration sites of industrial tourism, three provincial demonstration bases of sports and leisure tourism, three choice routes of provincial sports and leisure tourism, eight excellent provincial programs of sports and leisure tourism, 35 tourist attractions of intangible cultural heritage such as folk culture villages. Convergence of tourism industry with industry, agriculture, marine industry, sports, Chinese medicine, culture, and civil affairs had been deepened, with newly launched products and types of tourism, such as industrial tourism, rural tourism, sports and leisure tourism, wellness-featured Chinese medicine tourism, old-age care tourism, cultural tourism, marine tourism, and forest tourism. Characterized by diversity, thematization and distinctiveness, industry convergence had achieved a buoyant and substantial growth. As a result of industry convergence, tourism has developed into a giant comprehensive industry, covering 110 industries and connected to 29 departments. A batch of new tourism products were immensely popular, including Deqing Naked Retreats, Suichang Gold Mine National Mine Park, Xinchang High Fashion Industrial Park, Shangyu Seasonal Fruit-picking Base, Wuyi Shouxiangu Ganoderma Base, and Qiandaohu Lake Xianshan Tourism Complex.

 (vi) Tourism market environment was further improved.

  In 2012, tourism administration departments at various levels managed to make tourism business operations better regulated, tourism consumers better protected, and market environment further improved, by expanding the coverage of regulation and enhancing supervision of key areas. After the national travel agency management system was implemented in Zhejiang, all outbound group travels have been examined and approved online, greatly improving the standardized operation of travel agencies. Due to politics and public attention, travels to Taiwan have been a focus of supervision. Tourism administration departments not only conducted focused supervision on the travel agencies that violated regulations, arranged interviews with them and handled their malpractices, meanwhile, daily supervision of tour operations to Taiwan was strengthened. As a pilot province, Zhejiang established a special online column to deal with the examination and approval of travel groups to Taiwan. The demonstration program of national travel agency liability insurance system was launched across Zhejiang, with an increasing number of participating travel agencies and strengthened insurance protection for both travelers and travel agencies. By the end of November, the provincial Tourism Quality Inspection Institute had received 1,405 complaints, 14 fewer than the last year, and settled 1,369 cases, with a claim settlement rate of 97% and a total compensation of 893,000 yuan, 377,000 less than the same period last year.

III. Analysis of the Operation of Tourism Industry

(i) The three markets continued the development pattern of Two Stable and One Fast.

  In general, Zhejiangs tourism market retained a fast development pattern. Compared with 2011, relatively fast growth was achieved in domestic tourism but its growth rate turned flat; inbound tourism grew steadily at a lower rate; outbound tourism grew rapidly with its growth rate picking up. According to the results of sample surveys, in 2012 Zhejiang received altogether 391.24 million visits of domestic tourists, a year-on-year growth of 14.1%, with a drop of 2.2% in its increase. The revenue of domestic tourism totaled 447.58 billion yuan, a year-on-year growth of 18.2%, with a drop of 6.1% in its increase. Zhejiang received 8.659 million visits of inbound tourists, a year-on-year growth of 11.9%, with a drop of 1.1% in its increase. The international tourism revenue (foreign exchange) totaled 5.15 billion US dollars, a year-on-year growth of 13.4%, with a drop of 2.2% in its increase. Travel agencies across Zhejiang arranged 1.606 outbound visits, a year-on-year growth of 26.7%, with an increase of 10.6% in its growth rate. To sum up, the operation of Zhejiangs tourism market in 2012 maintained its general development pattern, with relatively rapid growth in its market size, steady rise in its consumption level, and continual optimization in its consumer structure. In particular, Zhejiangs tourism in 2012 demonstrated the following four features:

  1.Rural tourism became a hot spot in the domestic market.

  As projects like the Construction of New Countryside and the Construction of Beautiful Countryside played an important part in upgrading the general standard of infrastructure construction in rural areas, Zhejiang quickened its pace of upgrading rural tourism, and developing a batch of new tourism products with high quality, new type and distinctive features, which became new hot spots in the domestic market. Agritainments across the province received altogether 110 million visits, accounting for nearly 30% of Zhejiangs domestic tourism market, a year-on-year growth of 20.9%, with a growth rate higher than 14.1% of the domestic tourism. The direct revenue of agritainment totaled 8.83 billion yuan, with a year-on-year growth of 25.3%, which indicated that average expenditure on rural tourism rose with the upgrade of tourism products. For example, Sanjiuwu Resort, located in Moganshan Town, Deqing, flourished as a new type of tourism at the foot of Moganshan Mountain, drawing investors from over ten countries including South Africa, France, the UK, Belgium, and South Korea. With well-defined target consumers in mind, the resort has an average daily expenditure of 1,200 yuan, far higher than the average daily expenditure in agritainments as well as that of the provincial domestic tourism of 1,144 yuan in 2012. With its new product concepts and business models, Sanjiuwu Resort successfully promoted the upgrade and transformation of rural tourism. New York Times acclaimed it as one of the 45 Places to Go in 2012.

2. Outbound tourism still dominated middle and high-end tourism market.

   Notably, outbound tourism was developing rapidly. In 2012, travel agencies across Zhejiang arranged 1.606 million outbound visits, a year-on-year growth of 26.7%, higher than 14.1%, the growth rate of inbound visits. Judging by the development trend, outbound tourism maintained its accelerated growth, whereas the growth of domestic tourism slowed down. The outbound tourism grew so well partly because the income level of the people developed to the extent that transnational and transcontinental tours became popular, and partly because the change in exchange rates and the steady appreciation of Renminbi facilitated the development of outbound tourism. Another reason that deserves attention was that international tourist destinations were competing fiercely for Chinese tourists, especially from the source market in coastal areas of East China. It was a message that to build competitiveness and adapt to the internationalized tourism market we should pay more attention to product innovation and quality improvement.

3. Greatest source of inbound tourism was overseas Chinese visiting relatives or friends in the homeland.

   Among the source markets of inbound tourists in 2012, the growth rate of those from Hong Kong and Macao increased while those of foreign tourists and of Taiwan tourists declined by 4.3% and 2.1% respectively. The growth of these major source countries was not desirable but could still be anticipated. Notably, for two consecutive years, a growth rate above 20% was achieved in Italy and Spain, two source countries deep in debt. Italy developed into the fifth biggest source country of Zhejiangs inbound tourism with a growth rate of 26.3%, and Spain was the twelfth with a growth rate of tourists to Zhejiang as high as 30.1%. According to analyses, it was Chinese or overseas groups holding passports of two countries that contributed largely to the growth of inbound tourism from these two countries. During the European debt crisis, they had more time and stronger motivation to visit relatives and friends, go sightseeing, or to have business back at homeland. In contrast, inbound tourism in Yiwu, which comprised mainly international businesspeople, achieved a growth rate of 11.0% in 2012, lower than the provincial growth rate of 11.9%, and the growth rate of foreign exchange income from tourism was far lower than the provincial average of 13.4%, with a dramatic drop of 5.2%,

4. Imbalance between supply and demand in holiday tourism was not solved effectively.

     Because the system of paid vacations was not fully implemented, the problem of concentrated vacations in time and space still persisted. It became particularly evident due to several factors favorable to travels, e.g. toll-free highways during national holidays like the Mid-autumn Festival and the National Day, good weather conditions and combined holidays. During the week-long combined vacation of the Mid-autumn Festival and the National Day, Zhejiang received altogether 37.01 million visits, accounting for 9.5% of the domestic tourists around the year in China, and achieved a revenue of 32.26 billion yuan, accounting for 6.7% of the total tourism income. Concentrated visits of tourists to scenic areas and rural tourist attractions put a great strain on the local cultural heritage, eco-system, tourist facilities, and infrastructures like roads and parking lots. It is expected that the imbalance between supply and demand can only be solved with the system of paid vacations implemented when Outline of the Plan for National Tourism and Leisure is released.

(ii) Project investment became a major focus of tourism development.

     2012 was a year in which the provincial Tourism Bureau expected breakthroughs in the construction of major tourism projects. In May, Zhejiang provincial government held the first coordination and promotion conference on major tourism events in Chunan. Xia Baolong, secretary of the CPC provincial Party Committee of Zhejiang, presided over the conference, and pointed out that the construction of tourism depended on the construction of projects. He highlighted the importance of tourism projects for tourism development from the perspective of the CPC provincial Committee and the provincial government. With full support and attention from party committees and governments at all levels, key tourism projects could develop at a high pace. Zhejiang has become a favored place for tourism investment, with a batch of tourism projects new in concept, type and technology launched in succession, which developed into a powerful incentive to Zhejiangs economic growth. For example, the cluster of high-end star-graded hotels affiliated to Xixi Tiantang International Tourism Complex became a knockout product in Hangzhou to expand the international business conference market and tap the market potential. As proved by experiences, a well-constructed key tourism project could boost the industry, lead a cluster and even promote the local economy. For example, in the past few years, Hengdian Group developed a batch of major tourism projects like Dream Valley and Ancient-style Folk Houses. Receiving 11.77 million visits in 2012, achieving ticket income of over 0.6 billion yuan and a total tourism sales volume of 1.1 billion yuan, tourism had become the first pillar industry for Hengdian Group. Geographically, Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou were still biggest magnets for tourism investment, accounting for 42% of all the projects of tourism investment under construction in Zhejiang, and the three cities achieved an actual investment of 31.63 billion yuan, accounting for 54.4% of the provincial actual investment. Some large tourism complexes with an investment of more than 10 billion completed their annual planned investment, such as Fenghua Sunshine Coastal Resort, Qiandaohu Hualian International, Tongxiang International Eco-park. The successful launch of these super large projects drove the sustained growth of tourism economy in the years to come.

   Judging from the sources and flow of the actual investment, of the 58.1 billion yuan achieved last year, 25.4% (14.68 billion yuan) came from the government, 16.2% (9.41 billion yuan) from state-owned enterprises, 47.3% (27.51 billion yuan) from private enterprises, 5.1% (2.94 billion yuan) from joint-equity enterprises and others, 3.2% (1.85 billion yuan) from foreign investment, and 3% (1.76 billion yuan) from bank loans. 74.8% of the actual completed investment was non-government funds used mainly for the construction of physical facilities. Government funds, as good leverage, were used mainly for public infrastructures construction and resource conservation. Zhejiangs tourism industry has drawn investments from state-owned enterprises like China Youth Travel Service (CYTS) and China Travel Service (CTS), private enterprises like Yurun Group and Huachang Group, foreign enterprises like Oldman Corporation, and Zhejiang businesses like Metersbonwe and Fosun Group, thus forming a pattern of pluralism with domestic, foreign, state-owned, and private investments in tourism.

  In 2012, Zhejiang completed 85 tourism projects and launched 251 projects. Among the launched projects, 151 were located in cities other than Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou, including Huzhou, Jiaxing, Shaoxing, Jinhua, Taizhou, Zhoushan, Lishui and Quzhou, representing 60.2% in number and 63.1% of the total planned investment for all the  projects in Zhejiang. The geographical distribution of these new tourism investment projects was increasingly breaking the previous tourism development pattern of Highly Developed Northern and Eastern Zhejiang, Less Developed Central and Southwest Zhejiang, showing more and more the momentum of a balanced development, contributing continuously to the reduction of regional differences. For example, Suichang, a county with less developed economy but an important ecological shelter for Zhejiang, was dedicated to building its leisure tourism as a strategic pillar industry for better livelihood and stronger county. In December, 2012, Suichang had a special week for launching 13 major development projects, including Hushan Qinyu Resort Cultural Park, Hushan Hot Springs Town, Hongxingping Hot Springs Resort, Suichang Tourism Center, and Suichang Peony Pavilion, with planned investment of 10.2 billion yuan. These projects, as an important support for Suichangs tourism in the years to come, would surely promote the upgrade of the local industries and contribute greatly to the overall economic and social development.

 (iii) Industry convergence further expanded the scope of tourism development.

  Catalyzed by the growth of tourism consumption against the trend and the surge in tourism investment, tourism quickened the convergence with other industries such as agriculture, industry, forestry, culture, sports, marine industry, public heath, and old-age care industry. Rapid development has been made in a batch of new types of tourism and new products, such as sports and leisure tourism programs like skiing, offshore fishing, yachting, parachuting and golf, wellness-themed tourism programs like hot springs, meditation and Chinese medicine, and cultural entertainment tourism programs like Songcheng Eternal Love, Wuyue Eternal Love, Impression West Lake and Fantasy Tai Chi, along with greenway tourism, cruise tourism and motels. Impressive achievements have been made in Zhejiangs tourism convergence, unveiling a strategic framework for the expansion, transformation and upgrading of tourism industry.  

  The successful convergence and development of Zhejiangs tourism is attributable to the full support and cooperation of party committees and governments at all levels, tourism administrations and authorities of relevant industries. In recent years, Zhejiang Tourism Administration launched a series of programs, including the collaborative construction of agritainment villages, units, households, and leisure-tourism-featured agritainment towns with the Agriculture Office of Zhejiang Province, the collaborative construction of the folk culture village, provincial-level intangible cultural heritage, with Zhejiang Provincial Department of Culture, the collaborative construction of a provincial-level recreational fishing base with the provincial Bureau of Ocean and Fisheries, the collaborative construction of a provincial-level demonstration base of industrial tourism with Zhejiang Economy and Information Technology Commission, the collaborative construction of a provincial-level demonstration base of Chinese herbal medicine with Zhejiang Provincial Department of Health and Zhejiang Department of Agriculture, the collaborative construction of provincial-level demonstration bases, choice itineraries, and excellent programs of sports and recreation with Zhejiang Provincial Sports Bureau, and the collaborative construction of provincial-level old-age care demonstration bases with Zhejiang Provincial Office on Aging. Based on the construction of various bases, all these departments had made joint efforts to boost tourism and promote the industry convergence of tourism, industry, agriculture, fishery, sports, Chinese medicine, culture and civil affairs.

  Moreover, the great demand for tourism consumption in Yangtze River Delta opened up a large market for industry convergence. Rural tourism has become a major component of Zhejiangs tourism industry, receiving about one third of the domestic tourists in the province. Industrial tourism has been well received by consumers. For example, Xinchang High Fashion Silk (Zhejiang) Co. Ltd., rated 4A scenic area in 2011, received 549,800 visits in 2012, with 40,200 from overseas. And Suichang Gold Mine attracted 350,000 visits with its mining relics. Other new products and programs as a result of industry convergence also enjoyed great popularity and attention in the consumption market, like cultural tourism, sports and leisure tourism and marine tourism.

  The fact that the pioneering spirits and innovativeness of Zhejiang entrepreneurs had fuelled industry convergences cant be overlooked. In many cases of successful industry convergences like rural tourism, industrial tourism, cultural tourism and wellness tourism, enterprises, or basic units of the countryside played an active role, such as Anji Zhongnan Baicao Garden, Ningbo Great Bridge Ecological Farm, High Fashion Silk (Zhejiang) Co. Ltd., Suichang Gold Mine, and Shouxiangu Pharmaceutical Industry. Guided and assisted by governments of various levels, a large group of entrepreneurs, keenly sensitive to market demands, seized on the opportunity, rendering more abundant resources for tourism and opening up a new scope for self-development.

(iv)Smart travel was promoted and expedited as a focus.

   2012 was a year of milestone in the construction of smart travel in Zhejiang. As the key starting point and major breakthrough of forging the tourism into a modern service industry, smart travel construction had been guaranteed by the system and mechanism, and had been unfolded comprehensively in a few cities, counties and districts of Zhejiang Province.

    In 2012, the three cities, namely, Wenzhou, Hangzhou and Ningbo were confirmed successively as the national smart travel pilot cities. Xixi Wetland Scenic Area and Fenghua Xikou Scenic Area were confirmed asnational smart travel pilot scenic areas. In February, Zhejiang Tourism Bureau set up a provincial smart travel construction work leading group, and held the smart travel pilot work conference in Wenzhou in June. 27units including Chunan County, Xiangshan County, provincial China Travel Agency, Ningbo Nanyuan Universal Deluxe Hotel were confirmed as the first batch of smart travel pilot units in Zhejiang Province. Meanwhile, an exhibition of smart travel technology, first of its kind in China,was opened. A smart web portal for tours in Zhejiang was opened up online. The great network of provincial tourism consultative center was launched.

    The application of the smart travel technology greatly enhanced the service and management quality in tourist cities and areas.Following the introduction of the West Lake on Your Palm in 2011, a charge-free tour guide system supporting languages of 6 countries by Hangzhou West Lake, the Tourism Committee of Hangzhou introduced Hangzhou Smart Travelcell phone App system in 2012. Fenghua City released the first hand-drawn smart travel map of a county-level city in China. The cellphone network in Wuzheng tourism area also introduced the tour guide function of the two- dimensional bar code.

(v). E-commerce promoted the innovations of tourism marketing modes.

The year of 2012 saw more of the superior adaptability of tourism and e-business. The online tourism market stepped into the period of accelerated growth. The related studies show that the transactions done on the Chinese online tourism market in 2012 would be estimated to amount to around 253 billion yuan, a growth rate of over 50%. The provincial online tourism market took on three characteristics. Firstly, the cooperation between the suppliers of the middle and upper reach products such as hotels, restaurants, scenic areas and travel agencies and the online tourism enterprises was getting increasingly close and diversified, which inspired and forced the tourism enterprises to develop tourism products and services better fit for the market demands and with more varieties.

    Secondly, the modes of inquiries and reservations were innovated. With further popularization of the i-phone, the tourism applications  based on the i-phone platforms like APP and Android were diverse, providing instant and personalized services of tourist information. For example, to better serve the information needs of individual tourists, Hangzhou introduced in May, 2012 Hangzhou Smart Travel cellphone App Application (for I-phone and for Android). The application includes contents of 15 areas, ranging from the introduction of Hangzhou, weather forecast, accommodations in scenic areas, foods and shopping,recommended routes, tour consultations, useful information and tours in the surrounding areas. Based on the e-map, integrated with the GPS functions of positioning and searching, it provides the tourists with all-round and all-inclusive information about eating, living, transportation, touring, shopping and entertainment. Just  move their fingers, tourists may find out the locations  of the nearest hotels, restaurants, scenic spots and information centers, the travel routes and voice introduction of the scenic spots. It combines the three functions of the navigation, tour guide and visit guide into one, providing the greatest convenience to tourists in Hangzhou, setting up a brand new marketing competition platform for tourism service enterprises in Hangzhou. Thirdly, large quantities of e-tourism businesses emerged. Traditional agents(like Ctrip), large scale traditional travel agencies (like China International Travel Service Limited, aoyou.com of China CYTS Tours Holding Co., Ltd.), leisure and vacation enterprises(like tuniu.com and uzai.com) were quickening the steps of doing product research and development and online business outreach. Traditional travel agencies with medium and small sizes were also working with direct marketing platforms like trip.taobao.com, CNCN.com and other channels to develop e-businesses, contributing jointly to the rapid development of the leisure and vacation market.

(vi). Reform and innovation became the  sources of vigor in industry development.

In 2012, a comprehensive reform of tourism across Zhejiang and tourism pilot work went on at the equal pace, creating strong atmosphere of innovation in tourism industry, further inspiring the vigor for developing the tourism industry. The General Office of the provincial government released Opinions on quickening the pilot work of tourism comprehensive reform, and granted approval to the implementation of the special pilot reform projects in Huzhou City, Tonglu County, and Tongxiang City respectively, including the upgrade of rural tourism, zones of experiencing slow life, landscaping towns, globalizing scenic areas, developing a reform pilot pattern of 1+6+Xthroughout the province. Advanced by the comprehensive reform pilot work, seven comprehensive reform pilot units have been greatly promoted in terms of tourism management system, industry operation mechanism, product innovation capacity, service quality guarantee. Seven cities or counties have set up or are on the way of demonstrating and setting up the Tourism Committees. Tourism development target has been included in the strategic targets of local economic and social development, for example, Chunans strategy of landscaping the country as a whole, Dongtous target of building an international tourism and leisure island, and Anjis goal of making the county a grand country tourism area.

     The tourism reforms and innovations in each prefecture and city were also fruitful in 2012. Guided by the development philosophy of Driven by two wheels, oriented toward the world, globalized development, shared well-beings, Hangzhou City had made continuous innovations in the tourism industry integration and development, and succeeded in the transition from a tourist city to city tourism, providing positive experience to the innovative practice of Chinese city tourism. Quzhou Wulong Lake was approved to be the national ecological tourism experimental zone. The four function zones of  ecological tourism, namely, Wenzhou Yongjia, Wencheng, Pingyang, and Taishun  established the Administrative Committees, and set up investment companies, and straightened out the management system.

     At the end of 2012, Tourism Bureau of Zhejiang Province and Zhejiang Daily Group jointly gave a general assessment chart of tourism in 2012. On the chart, the tourism innovation prize, which was set in order to summarize the experience of reforms and innovations of tourism industry in Zhejiang and recognize advanced individuals in terms of reforms and innovations, was awarded to 17 cases including tourism marketing via microblog by the provincial tourism information center, the brand of EastChina Guest Hall conference tourism by Hangzhou Xiaoshan District Tourism Bureau, smart travel service provided by Fenghua City in Ningbo, tourism marketing via micro film by Shaoxing TourismGroup Limited. They represented the achievements made by the provincial tourism industry in developing the spirit of pioneering and innovating in the fields of management system and mechanism, marketing management, brand planning and promotion, tourism public service and so on.

IV. Operation Characteristics of Tourism Enterprises

 Influenced by the continuous expansion of tourism industry in recent years and the great development of emerging new business types, the profit of three big lines of businesses, namely, hotels, travel agencies and tourist areas was diluted. The performance indicators of the three lines were inferior to that of the tourism industry as a whole, in the lodging industry.

(i).Lodging Industry

     Under the double influence of adverse economic environment and the ever-increasing size of investment in lodging facilities, the lodging industry operation faced the growing pressure of going downward. In 2012, the average hotel occupancy rate of the provincial accommodation facilities was 57.79%, down 4.28 percentage point year to year, and the average room rate was 323.18 yuan per day, basically flat compared with 2011.

     Seen from the trend, the lodging industry throughout the province on the whole showed a shrinking growth of the average room rate and an increasing decline in the room occupancy rate in 2012. Compared with 2011, while the increase in the average room rate in the lodging industry throughout the province shrank, the decline in the room occupancy rate  expanded. The core business indicators of the lodging industry pointed to the undesirable performance, which was mainly due to three reasons: the first was that the expansion of non-star-grade hotels in the last few years diluted the profits of the whole lodging industry market; the second was that the boom of the rurual tourism, represented by agritainment, diverted a certain part of guests for leisure. Especially with the emergence of personalized boutique farmhouses in the recent years, business hotels and conference hotels of middle and high ends were also faced with substantial competitive pressure. The third reason rested with the shrinking of guest sources in the business and conference markets.

     The following three phenomena in the operation of lodging industry in 2012 deserve attention:

  1.Star grade hotels turned deluxe, while economic hotels got personalized.

   The recent years see the gradual drop in the number of star grade hotels in Zhejiang Province. In 2011, the total number of star-grade hotels reached 991. In 2012 it dropped to 958. But with 17 newly added ones, the four star and five star hotels increased to 253. The structure was further optimized, the manifestations of which included: firstly, the high star hotels are increasing year after year, low star hotels are decreasing year after year. Secondly, the domestic hotel groups are expanding and foreign invested hotels are making their way into the Chinese market at an even greater speed. Thirdly, while the brand economic chain hotels quicken their expansion and squeeze the low-star hotels out of the market, they attach more and more importance to personalized construction, so as to attract more target guests.

2. The expansion of the lodging industry diluted the market profit.

    In recent years, hotels, the high-star hotels in particular, have showed the properties of real estate investment. The boom of opening investment hotels, especially the high star hotels,remains throughout the province. From 2011 to 2012, a batch of high star hotels opened their business. In 2012, an additional ten 5-star hotels opened business throughout the province, resulting in even more fierce competition among high star hotels and the sluggish growth of overall performance. These were associated with short-term bigger supply than the demand. Seen from the whole province, some high star-grade hotels just earned a lower-than-the-average profit, the grassroots employees were paid lower than the average, and the business owners subordinated the management attitude to construction, all of which  posed a threat to the sustainable development of the hotel industry in future.

3.The diversified types of business were prominent.

 As the mainstream business type in the lodging industry, city business hotels kept a good momentum. However, with the continuous expansions of the domestic demand and the new consumption market, the lodging industry took on diversified types of business. New types of hotels, such as conference hotels, holiday resorts located on suburbs and scenic areas, hostels, country inns, happy farmhouses, motels and so on developed rapidly. The development of economic hotels and deluxe boutique hotels was particularly eye-catching.The Rubrics of Theme Hotels with Cultural Features in Zhejiang Province and Opinions on Managing Famous Brand Hotels, newly issued in 2012, boosted the cultural theme construction in hotel industry throughout the province. Theme hotels with cultural features won market popularity.

(ii). Travel Agencies

By the end of 2012, there had been 2012 travel agencies in Zhejiang Province, with an addition of 152 to the number of the last year. Among them, 99 were qualified for organizing outbound tours, an addition of 21 to the number of the last year, and 14 were qualified for organizing  tours in Taiwan, an addition of 5 to the number of the last year. The total of the travel agencies and the number of  those qualified for organizing outbound tours and tours in Taiwan both took the lead in China. In 2012, tourist agencies in Zhejiang Province had some growth in the business of three markets, but showed different developing patterns:

    The business in the inbound tourism market surrendered the early gains, resulting in increasing pressure. In 2012, the travel agencies throughout the province solicited inbound tourists of 1 million person-times, up 16.7% year to year, and received inbound tourists of 1.047 million person-times, down 6.1% year to year. Correspondingly, against the fast growth in the first six months of the year. The two indicators, namely, the solicited and the received of the inbound tourists by travel agencies, both showed negative growth rates  in July and August. It resulted from the following reasons: In July, Japanese government launched the incident of purchasing Senkaku islands, which seriously influenced the Sino-Japan relationship, resulting in the sharp decline of inbound tourists from Japan to Zhejiang. In December, Shinzou Abe became Japanese Prime Minister for another time, bringing Sino-Japanese relations into obscurity. The inboundJapanese tourists might continue the tendency of decline, imposing heavier pressure on travel agencies throughout Zhejiang Province in the business of inbound tourism market.

  The businesses of organizing domestic and outbound tourists went into overdrive. In 2012, the travel agencies throughout the province received domestic tourists of 15.031 million person-times, up 8.9% year to year, organized domestic tours of 15.509 million person-times, up 78.9% year to year, organized outbound tours of 1.606 million person-times, up 26.7% year to year. Despite hardship of expanding inbound business and the flatness of reception business, the growth rates of domestic and outbound tour group organization business amountedrespectively to 78.9% and 26.7%. The rapid growth was credited to the rapid growth of tourism consumption market throughout the province on the one hand, on the other, the growth itself indicates the travel agencies throughout the province made certain improvements in production, service and marketing. Especially the high-speed rise of online business of organizing tourists, which made undeniable contribution. In 2012, the performance of tourism industry throughout the province on the whole kept the tendency of growth, but some issues and new tendencies still deserve attention:

1.Online business has developed to be one of the main businesses of travel agencies.

 Promoted by e-tourism, the new trends of developing travel agency business, a few travel agencies throughout Zhejiang Province were constructing websites and applying e-commerce to tourism. Most of the websites were not constructed for the purpose of e-business, but for marketing and promotion. This was mainly because paying for the tourist products online hadnt been a conventional way of payment and signing contracts online was not feasible. Since 2012, some travel agencies throughout the province have made some substantial progress in applying e-commerce to tourism. According to the investigation and survey, CYTS Zhejiang Branches found that the online reservations made by individual customers accounted for more than half of the total made by individuals in 2012. Ningbo Feiyang Travel Agency is closing some of its physical stores and focuses on the e-business in tourism. They have achieved a good result .(Note:Presently e-commerce in tourism by travel agencies throughout the province follows the procedure of online reservation, payment, signing contracts at a physical store or by mail.) E-commerce in tourism may lower part of the operating costs, however, it is relatively costly  in terms of talents and capital. It is advisable for travel agencies throughout the province to take a prudent attitude before investing in etourism.

 2.Bidding invitation stood out as a trend in major customer businesses.

  In recent years, the business structure of the travel agencies throughout the province has undergone some changes. The purchase businesses from major customers, represented by the enterprises from the industries like banking, communications and electric power have grown at an increasing speed. It is required that purchase businesses of major customers go through the process of inviting bids and bidding. In addition to enterprises, government purchase businesses above 50,000 yuan also call for bidding invitation and bidding process.

    It is getting increasingly evident that bidding invitation is going to be a trend in travel agency businesses. Travel agencies throughout the province should respond to the new trend proactively. While providing customers with counseling and other services, travel agencies should also pay attention to the standardization and feasibility of bidding invitation forms.

3.Cut-throat price competitions persisted.

  With the development of tourism, the provincial tourist market has become divided. Some tourists, owing to their ever-increasing awareness of tourism, attach more importance to the tour qualities than to the prices. The cut-throat competitions among travel agencies involving this part of the market were getting less and less. While some other tourists attach relatively more importance to the prices than to qualities. The cut-throat competitions persisted among travel agencies of selling at a lower- than-the-cost price to this part of the market. The cut-throat competitions were widespread in the businesses of tour organizations for short routes and local receptions. In 2012, the administrative authorities of tourism at all levels implemented and carried out deeply travel agency regulations, effectively putting the cut-throat price competitions under control. With the promulgation and implementation of Tourism Law of People’s Republic of China” in the future, the cut-throat price competitions among travel agencies throughout the province will be further kept within the limits, contributing to a better environment for development.

(iii). Tourist Areas

 By the end of 2012, there had been altogether 324 A level tourist and scenic areas(spots). The tourist areas(spots) included in statistics throughout the province received guests of 0.43 billion person-times, up 24.7% year to year, achieving revenues from admission tickets of 6.05 billion yuan, up 18.9% year to year. Under the strategic regulation of expanding the domestic demand and stabilizing the growth, the construction of tourist attractions had been advanced steadily, and the consumption in tourist attractions sustained the growth, creating a favorable situation of double prosperities of supply and demand.

    Consumptions in tourist attractions are obviously seasonal, hence the intensive use ratio of resources needs improving. With the sustained, healthy and rapid development of domestic economy, the increasingly complete public tourist services like tourist transportations, the increasingly complete system of paid vacations and holiday system, peoples enthusiasm with consumption in scenic areas surged. In particular, after the Ministry of Transportation issued Circular on implementing exemption of tolls for small buses on major festivals and holidays in 2012, the domestic demand of tourism was stimulated to a blowout during the National Day Golden Week around October 1. As a result, in October, the tourist receptions in scenic areas exceeded 60 million person-times, 1.7 times the monthly average of the year-round tourist reception volume. Tourist distributions in four seasons were uneven, resulting in overcrowding and overloaded operation of resources during the peak seasons, but few and far between tourists during the low season, leaving many resources unused and wasted.

    The models of consumption demands were transformed, and business types in scenic areas got increasingly rich. Tourist attractions with beautiful landscapes and profound cultural heritages, were integrated with increasingly rich consumption elements. New types of businesses sprang up, such as tourist attractions of industry type, agriculture type, culture type, sports and leisure type. They not only enriched the business types in scenic areas, also guided the transformation and upgrading of the scenic areas, speeding up the integration with the related industries. For example, the provincial governments first pilot zone of experiencing slow country life, with the features of country elements, was established in Tonglu; the first sports&leisure tourism festival was held successfully in Fuyang City, a national  sports industry base, the 5th inationwide, and the only state-level sports&leisure demonstration zone; 16 enterprises including High Fashion Silk (Zhejiang) Co. Ltd were named as the first batch industrial tourism demonstration base in Zhejiang Province.

     Spatial distributions got increasingly balanced, contributing to the construction of a province with strong tourist economy. In recent years, as a result of the proactive advancement in applying for and constructing the high level tourist attractions, each county (city, district) of the two cities boasts an average of 3.7 A level scenic areas, hitting the provincial average. The eco-tourism economic belt in the Southeast Zhejiang Province was established comprehensively. The construction of scenic areas develops quickly in cities of Zhoushan, Ningbo, Taizhou and Wenzhou, but the numbers of A level scenic areas in Zhoushan, Taizhou and Wenzhou remain lower than the provincial average. The development of ocean type scenic areas remains slow, suggesting tremendous potentials for developing ocean tourism.

     In 2012, the provincial scenic areas sustained the high-speed growth. Some new trends are noteworthy:

1.The philosophy of globalization were increasingly highlighted

  With the overall promotion and implementation of the provincial program of constructing a beautiful countryside, along with the quickening steps of the transformation and upgrade of the scenic areas, all areas in the province were strengthening the environment and sanitation improvement work in tourist destinations and the construction of supporting leisure facilities outside the scenic areas, so as to make the landscape layout of everywhere is a scenery come true. Hangzhou City were actively boosting the globalized tourism construction covering the big Hangzhou by taking advantage of the ecological landscape protection and construction work. Dongtou county promoted the tourism industry development throughout the county and the island according to the standard of 5A level tourism areas. Chunan county held a mobilization meeting for globalizing scenic areas construction. Secretary of CPC County Committee attended the meeting and made a speech. They also formulated and released Opinion on implementing the globalization of scenic areas in Chunan County so as to achieve the great transformation of Chunan. Ten counties including Anji, Suichang, Tonglv and Tiantai set the goal of globalizing scenic areas.

2.Service management in scenic areas was on the threshhold of an intelligent era.

    During the first half of the year 2012, Zhejiang province successfully hosted the first national smart travel technology exhibition, where some famous enterprises such as Alibaba, China Unicom exhibited nearly 100 smart travel items like tourism cell phone app application, mobile monitoring, secured tourism transactions, live guide of tours in scenic areas. The attention that these famous enterprises had paid to the smart travel technology and the achievements they made in research and development aroused much concern over smart travel among governments of all levels, administrative departments of tourism and all sectors of society. Three cities,Wenzhou, Hangzhou and Ningbo, were successively confirmed as the National Smart Travel Pilot Cities. Xixi wetland scenic area and Fenhua Xikou Scenic area were confirmed asnational smart travel pilot scenic areas. In the June of 2012, a provincial smart travel pilot work conference was held, confirming 27 units as the first batch smart travel pilot units in Zhejiang Province. The application of the smart travel technology had greatly enhanced the service and management quality in tourism cities and tourism areas. After the introduction of the West Lake on Your palm, a charge-free guide system supporting languages of six countries by the West Lake, The Tourism Committee of Hangzhou introduced Hangzhou smart travelcell phone App system in 2012. Fenghua city released nationally the first hand-drawn map of smart travel in a county-level city. The cellphone network in Wuzheng tourism area also introduced the tour guide function of the 2 dimensional bar code.

3. Pareto effect was prominent in high-level scenic areas.

     By the end of 2012, there had been altogether 324 A level tourist areas (spots). Among them, 143 were 4A and above scenic spots,  which received an accumulated tourists of 0.21 billion person-times, accounting for 81.5% of the total reception volume of A level spots, achieving revenues from admission tickets of 4.66 billion yuan, representing 89.6% of the total tickets revenues from the A level scenic areas. High level tourist areas continued the commanding share of above 80% in terms of reception volume and admission tickets. Meanwhile, it is also noticed that the transformation and upgrading of the scenic areas, represented by high level tourist attractions, were progressing with acceleration. There emerged a batch of new comprehensive tourist areas, such as the 5 A level scenic areas like Wuzhen, Hengdian, Qiandaohu Lake, etc. Their emergence satisfied the new demands of domestic tourism consumption, guided the innovative development of regional tourist attractions, and achieved outstanding operation performance. In Zhejiang Province, 5A level tourist attractions achieved an average per visitor taking of 74 yuan, far higher than the average of 20 in the 4A level tourist attractions.

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