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Qin Dynasty
2012-05-27 19:45:55

Qin Dynasty, Han Dynasty and Northern and Southern Dynasties  

Compared with the cultures before the Qin Dynasty, the culture of Western Han Dynasty had highly developed and entered a glittering new era.
    From the founding of Western Han Dynasty to the end of Northern & Southern dynasties, the culture of Zhejiang had experienced the colorful period of 800 years.  
    Wang Chong, a Shangyu philosopher of Eastern Han dynasty deeply influenced generations of ancient Chinese ideologists with his native materialism explanations to the relationship of spirit and material things in his book The Discourses Weighed in the Balance. In Wei, Jin and Northern & Southern dynasties, there were lots of famous Zhejiang scholars who made their efforts to put forth the observations of mathematics, historiography and philosophy. The most outstanding achievement of this period is the observation fruits of historiography: there were historians like Yu Yu, Shen Yue, Xie Shen, Xie Linyun, and the noted monk Hui Jiao, history works like History of Jin, Late History of Han, Liang Wu Epoch, History of Song, and annals in different forms such as records, chronicles scripture, biography, and rhyme prose. As for philosophy, Ji Kang was the most famous metaphysics ideologist of the time.  

Wang Xizhi

There were also a lot of scholars on literature and arts like Xie Lingyun, Xie Huilian, Shen Yue and Wujun whose poems and prose contributed a lot to the development of Zhejiang culture. Xie Lingyun was considered the founder of landscape poems whose poems mainly delineated the natural sceneries; the poet from Wukang, Shen Yue is the creator of the four-rhythms and the representative of Yongming Style poems. Together with Xie Tiao, he made the first try of the new type poems, which were the origin of classical poems with settled rules and forms. The famous calligrapher of Eastern Jin Dynasty, Wang Xizhi was famous for his powerful and various styles. The calligraphers of all generations consider him the Saint Calligrapher and compare his works to the floating clouds and flying dragons.
      After the Six Dynasties (a collective name for the six dynasties all taking Nanjing as their capital), the economy and industrial arts of Zhejiang benefited from the comparatively stable social conditions and developed quickly. The increasing demands of artworks accelerated the development of porcelain processing industry after the Three Kingdoms Period. The appearance of celadon is the evidence of the prosperous economy and culture then.
      During this period, the Zhejiang celadon could be divided into four systems according to the location, namely, Yue kiln, Wu Kiln, Wuzhou Kiln and Deqing Kiln, among which the Yue Kiln located in Shangyu County was the most famous for its large quantity and high quality and ranked high in the world famous kilns. The appearances of Zhejiang celadon and the development of the celadon culture, become the landmark of the development of Zhejiang economic and cultural history of the period.  

Preface to the Poems Composed at the Orchid Pavilion

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